What happens when wind turbines face extreme cold temperatures?
As wind energy continues to establish itself as a formidable force for example in Europe's electricity grids, contributing a fifth of the region's power needs, the spotlight turns to the resilience of wind turbines in cold climates. Despite the impressive figures, there are skeptics who question the capabilities of wind turbines in cold and icy conditions. Let’s explore the challenges faced by wind turbines in freezing temperatures and the innovative solutions that the industry has developed to overcome them.
Large wind turbines, designed to endure freezing temperatures down to around -30 degrees Celsius, can face challenges when ice forms on their blades. This can occur not only during snowfall or freezing rain but also in high wind chill or high humidity conditions when fog descends. Icing on the blades can affect aerodynamics, reducing efficiency and potentially causing imbalance issues. Safety concerns may also prompt turbines to stop spinning, preventing ice from being thrown off the blades. The blade’s rotational speed on large turbine is low making it easier for ice to form.
While ice poses challenges for wind farm operators, the industry has implemented various solutions to prevent its formation. Modern large turbines are equipped with de-icing technologies that can be controlled from wind farm control rooms. These solutions include heating systems inside the blades, mechanical de-icing devices, fluids, blade vibration systems, and even innovative coatings such as a thin layer of heated carbon fiber.
At Borrum Energy Solutions we have thought of the harsh weather Canadians face. The Anorra microgeneration wind turbines have gone under extreme weather conditions testing (-50C) to ensure that the Anorra turbines do not face problems in the cold. The Anorra has black carbon fiber blades with a protective coating that helps fight against icing. Carbon fiber ensures there is no cold or humidity related deformation, the colour black helps the blade absorb heat from the sun to help prevent icing and the special coating also prevents icing especially in humid environments. Finally, the blade’s rotational speed on wind turbine size like the Annora is high which makes it difficult for ice to form on blades.
Wind turbines, once criticized during extreme weather events, are proving their mettle through innovation and adaptation. The challenges posed by ice formation are being met with cutting-edge solutions, reinforcing the role of wind energy in a cleaner, more sustainable future. As the industry continues to learn from experiences and invest in advancements, wind turbines remain a crucial component of the global transition towards renewable energy.
To learn more about how the Anorra deals with the cold environment check out this video from our CEO! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZjxSms7GKo&t=613s